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The room marked with a cross is not where the murder was committed,
The first trace of Beccarias influence in England appeared in the first edition of Blackstones Commentaries, of which the book on the Criminal Laws was published the very next year after the appearance of the Italian treatise. That Blackstone was well acquainted with it is proved by his frequent reference to it in treating of crimes. From Beccaria he argues that the certainty of punishments is more effectual than their severity, and finds it absurd to apply the same punishment to crimes of different malignity. Blackstone was also the first professional lawyer to find fault with the frequency of capital punishment in England, and to point out as a melancholy truth the presence of 160 actions in the statute book which were felonies without benefit of clergy.The French officers and men in the fort when it was taken were but two hundred and fifty-eight. Some of the soldiers and many of the armed inhabitants deserted during the siege, which, no doubt, hastened the surrender; for Subercase, a veteran of more than thirty years' service, had borne fair repute as a soldier.
and Lock Willow Farm is just on the crest of one wave. The barnsThe British squadron, with the five regiments on board, was to have reached Boston at the middle of May. On the twentieth of that month the whole contingent of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island was encamped by Boston harbor, with transports and stores, ready to embark for Quebec at[Pg 144] ten hours' notice. When Vetch, after seeing everything in readiness at New York, returned to Boston on the third of July, he found the New England levies encamped there still, drilled diligently every day by officers whom he had brought from England for the purpose. "The bodies of the men," he writes to Lord Sunderland, "are in general better than in Europe, and I hope their courage will prove so too; so that nothing in human probability can prevent the success of this glorious enterprise but the too late arrival of the fleet." But of the fleet there was no sign. "The government here is put to vast expense," pursues Vetch, "but they cheerfully pay it, in hopes of being freed from it forever hereafter. All that they can do now is to fast and pray for the safe and speedy arrival of the fleet, for which they have already had two public fast-days kept."
I have spoken elsewhere of the two opposing policies that divided Canada,the policies of concentration and of expansion, on the one hand leaving the west to the keeping of the Jesuits, and confining the population to the borders of the St. Lawrence; on the other, the occupation of the interior of the continent by posts of war and trade. Through the force of events the latter view had prevailed; yet while the military chiefs of Canada could not but favor it, the Jesuits were unwilling to accept it, and various interests in the colony still opposed it openly or secretly. Frontenac had been its strongest champion, and Cadillac followed in his steps. It seemed[Pg 22] to him that the time had come for securing the west for France.It is certain that they wanted peace, but equally certain that they did not want it to be lasting, and sought nothing more than a breathing time to regain their strength. Even now some of them were for continuing the war; and at the great council at Onondaga, where the matter was debated, the Onondagas, Oneidas, and Mohawks spurned the French proposals, and refused to give up their prisoners. The Cayugas and some of the Senecas were of another mind, and agreed to a partial compliance with Frontenac's demands. The rest seem to have stood passive in the hope of gaining time.
And after we'd finished our shopping, we met Master JervieOf Henri de Buade, father of the governor of Canada, but little is recorded. When in Paris, he lived, like his son after him, on the Quai des Clestins, in the parish of St. Paul. His son, Count Frontenac, was born in 1620, seven years after his father's marriage. Apparently his birth took place elsewhere than in Paris, for it is not recorded with those of Henri de Buade's other children, on the register of St. Paul (Jal, Dictionnaire Critique, Biographique, et d'Histoire). The story told by Tallemant des Raux concerning his marriage (see page 6) seems to be mainly true. Colonel Jal says: "On con?oit que j'ai pu tre tent de conna?tre ce qu'il y a de vrai dans les rcits de Saint-Simon et de Tallemant des Raux; voici ce qu'aprs bien des recherches, j'ai pu apprendre. Mlle. La Grange fit, en effet, un mariage demi secret. Ce ne fut point sa paroisse que fut bnie son union avec M. de Frontenac, mais dans une des petites glises de la Cit qui avaient le privilge de recevoir les amants qui s'unissaient malgr leurs parents, et ceux qui regularisaient leur position et s'pousaient un peu avantquelquefois aprsla naissance d'un enfant. Ce fut St. Pierre-aux-B?ufs que, le mercredy, 28 Octobre, 1648, 'Messire Louis de Buade, Chevalier, comte de Frontenac, conseiller du Roy en ses conseils, mareschal des camps et armes de S. M., et maistre de camp du rgiment du Normandie,' pousa 'demoiselle Anne de La Grange, fille de Messire Charles de La Grange, conseiller du Roy et maistre des comptes' de la paroisse de St. Paul comme M. de Frontenac, 'en vertu de la dispense obtenue 456 de M. l'official de Paris par laquelle il est permis au Sr. de Buade et demoiselle de La Grange de clbrer leur marriage suyvant et conformment la permission qu'ils en ont obtenue du Sr. Coquerel, vicaire de St. Paul, devant le premier cur ou vicaire sur ce requis, en gardant les solennits en ce cas requises et accoutumes.'" Jal then gives the signatures to the act of marriage, which, except that of the bride, are all of the Frontenac family.